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For changes since the latest tagged release, please refer to the git commit log.

0.6.0 (26 Apr 2023)

This is a major release with some important consistency and completeness improvements. It should be treated as almost being the first release candidate of 1.0.0, which will land after some small amount of further feature extensions and documentation improvements. All users are recommended to upgrade.

Breaking changes:

Although there are some internal changes to API, as documented below, there are no breaking changes to user-facing APIs.

New features and enhancements:

  • Formula terms are now consistently ordered regardless of providence (formulae or manual term specification), and sorted according to R conventions by default rather than lexically. This can be changed using the _ordering keyword to the Formula constructor.
  • Greater compatibility with R and patsy formulae:
  • for patsy: added standardize, Q and treatment contrasts shims.
  • for patsy: added cluster_by='numerical_factors option to ModelSpec to enable patsy style clustering of output columns by involved numerical factors.
  • for R: added support for exponentiation with ^ and %in%.
  • Diff and Helmert contrast codings gained support for additional variants.
  • Greatly improved the performance of generating sparse dummy encodings when there are many categories.
  • Context scoping operators (like paretheses) are now tokenized as their own special type.
  • Add support for merging Structured instances, and use this functionality during AST evaluation where relevant.
  • ModelSpec.term_indices is now a list rather than a tuple, to allow direct use when indexing pandas and numpy model matrices.
  • Add official support for Python 3.11.

Bugfixes and cleanups:

  • Fix parsing formulae starting with a parenthesis.
  • Fix iteration over root nodes of Structured instances for non-sequential iterable values.
  • Bump testing versions and fix poly unit tests.
  • Fix use of deprecated automatic casting of factors to numpy arrays during dense column evaluation in PandasMaterializer.
  • Factor.EvalMethod.UNKNOWN was removed, defaulting instead to LOOKUP.
  • Remove sympy version constraint now that a bug has been fixed upstream.


  • Substantial updates to documentation, which is now mostly complete for end-user use-cases. Developer and API docs are still pending.

0.5.2 (17 Sep 2022)

This is a minor patch releases that fixes one bug.

Bugfixes and cleanups:

  • Fixed alignment between the length of a Structured instance and iteration over this instance (including Formula instances). Formerly the length would only count the number of keys in its structure, rather than the number of objects that would be yielded during iteration.

0.5.1 (9 Sep 2022)

This is a minor patch release that fixes two bugs.

Bugfixes and cleanups:

  • Fixed generation of string representation of Formula objects.
  • Fixed generation of formulaic.__version__ during package build.

0.5.0 (28 Aug 2022)

This is a major new release with some minor API changes, some ergonomic improvements, and a few bug fixes.

Breaking changes:

  • Accessing named substructures of Formula objects (e.g. formula.lhs) no longer returns a list of terms; but rather a Formula object, so that the helper methods can remain accessible. You can access the raw terms by iterating over the formula (list(formula)) or looking up the root node (formula.root).

New features and improvements:

  • The ModelSpec object is now the source of truth in all ModelMatrix generations, and can be constructed directly from any supported specification using ModelSpec.from_spec(...). Supported specifications include formula strings, parsed formulae, model matrices and prior model specs.
  • The .get_model_matrix() helper methods across Formula, FormulaMaterializer, ModelSpec and model_matrix objects/helpers functions are now consistent, and all use ModelSpec directly under the hood.
  • When accessing substructures of Formula objects (e.g. formula.lhs), the term lists will be wrapped as trivial Formula instances rather than returned as raw lists (so that the helper methods like .get_model_matrix() can still be used).
  • FormulaSpec is now exported from the top-level module.

Bugfixes and cleanups:

  • Fixed ModelSpec specifications being overriden by default arguments to FormulaMaterializer.get_model_matrix.
  • Structured._flatten() now correctly flattens unnamed substructures.

0.4.0 (10 Aug 2022)

This is a major new release with some new features, greatly improved ergonomics for structured formulae, matrices and specs, and a few small breaking changes (most with backward compatibility shims). All users are encouraged to upgrade.

Breaking changes:

  • include_intercept is no longer an argument to FormulaParser.get_terms; and is instead an argument of the DefaultFormulaParser constructor. If you want to modify the include_intercept behaviour, please use:
    Formula("y ~ x", _parser=DefaultFormulaParser(include_intercept=False))
  • Accessing terms via Formula.terms is deprecated since Formula became a subclass of Structured[List[Terms]]. You can directly iterate over, and/or access nested structure on the Formula instance itself. Formula.terms has a deprecated property which will return a reference to itself in order to support legacy use-cases. This will be removed in 1.0.0.
  • ModelSpec.feature_names and ModelSpec.feature_columns are deprecated in favour of ModelSpec.column_names and ModelSpec.column_indices. Deprecated properties remain in-place to support legacy use-cases. These will be removed in 1.0.0.

New features and enhancements:

  • Structured formulae (and their derived matrices and specs) are now mutable. Internally Formula has been refactored as a subclass of Structured[List[Terms]], and can be incrementally built and modified. The matrix and spec outputs now have explicit subclasses of Structured (ModelMatrices and ModelSpecs respectively) to expose convenience methods that allow these objects to be largely used interchangeably with their singular counterparts.
  • ModelMatrices and ModelSpecs arenow surfaced as top-level exports of the formulaic module.
  • Structured (and its subclasses) gained improved integration of nested tuple structure, as well as support for flattened iteration, explicit mapping output types, and lots of cleanups.
  • ModelSpec was made into a dataclass, and gained several new properties/methods to support better introspection and mutation of the model spec.
  • FormulaParser was renamed DefaultFormulaParser, and made a subclass of the new formula parser interface FormulaParser. In this process include_intercept was removed from the API, and made an instance attribute of the default parser implementation.

Bugfixes and cleanups:

  • Fixed AST evaluation for large formulae that caused the evaluation to hit the recursion limit.
  • Fixed sparse categorical encoding when the dataframe index is not the standard range index.
  • Fixed a bug in the linear constraints parser when more than two constraints were specified in a comma-separated string.
  • Avoid implicit changing of the sparsity structure of CSC matrices.
  • If manually constructed ModelSpecs are provided by the user during materialization, they are updated to reflect the output-type chosen by the user, as well as whether to ensure full rank/etc.
  • Allowed use of older pandas versions. All versions >=1.0.0 are now supported.
  • Various linting cleanups as pylint was added to the CI testing.


  • Apart from the .materializer submodule, most code now has inline documentation and annotations.

0.3.4 (1 May 2022)

This is a backward compatible major release that adds several new features.

New features and enhancements:

  • Added support for customizing the contrasts generated for categorical features, including treatment, sum, deviation, helmert and custom contrasts.
  • Added support for the generation of linear constraints for ModelMatrix instances (see ModelMatrix.model_spec.get_linear_constraints).
  • Added support for passing ModelMatrix, ModelSpec and other formula-like objects to the model_matrix sugar method so that pre-processed formulae can be used.
  • Improved the way tokens are manipulated for the right-hand-side intercept and substitutions of 0 with -1 to avoid substitutions in quoted contexts.

Bugfixes and cleanups:

  • Fixed variable sanitization during evaluation, allowing variables with special characters to be used in Python transforms; for example: bs(`my|feature%is^cool`).
  • Fixed the parsing of dictionaries and sets within python expressions in the formula; for example: C(x, {"a": [1,2,3]}).
  • Bumped requirement on astor to >=0.8 to fix issues with ast-generation in Python 3.8+ when numerical constants are present in the parsed python expression (e.g. "bs(x, df=10)").

0.3.3 (4 April 2022)

This is a minor patch release that migrates the package tooling to poetry; solving a version inconsistency when packaging for conda.

0.3.2 (17 March 2022)

This is a minor patch release that fixes an attempt to import numpy.typing when numpy is not version 1.20 or later.

0.3.1 (15 March 2022)

This is a minor patch release that fixes the maintaining of output types, NA-handling, and assurance of full-rank for factors that evaluate to pre-encoded columns when constructing a model matrix from a pre-defined ModelSpec. The benchmarks were also updated.

0.3.0 (14 March 2022)

This is a major new release with many new features, and a few small breaking changes. All users are encouraged to upgrade.

Breaking changes:

  • The minimum supported version of Python is now 3.7 (up from 3.6).
  • Moved transform implementations from formulaic.materializers.transforms to the top-level formulaic.transforms module, and ported all existing transforms to output FactorValues types rather than dictionaries. FactorValues is an object proxy that allows output types like pandas.DataFrames to be used as they normally would, with some additional metadata for formulaic accessible via the __formulaic_metadata__ attribute. This makes non-formula direct usage of these transforms much more pleasant.
  • ~ is no longer a generic formula separator, and can only be used once in a formula. Please use the newly added | operator to separate a formula into multiple parts.

New features and enhancements:

  • Added support for "structured" formulas, and updated the ~ operator to use them. Structured formulas can have named substructures, for example: lhs and rhs for the ~ operator. The representation of formulas has been updated to show this structure.
  • Added support for context-sensitivity during the resolution of operators, allowing more flexible operators to be implemented (this is exploited by the | operator which splits formulas into multiple parts).
  • The formulaic.model_matrix syntactic sugar function now accepts ModelSpec and ModelMatrix instances as the "formula" spec, making generation of matrices with the same form as previously generated matrices more convenient.
  • Added the poly transform (compatible with R and patsy).
  • numpy is now always available in formulas via np, allowing formulas like np.sum(x). For convenience, log, log10, log2, exp, exp10 and exp2 are now exposed as transforms independent of user context.
  • Pickleability is now guaranteed and tested via unit tests. Failure to pickle any formulaic metadata object (such as formulas, model specs, etc) is considered a bug.
  • The capturing of user context for use in formula materialization has been split out into a utility method formulaic.utils.context.capture_context(). This can be used by libraries that wrap Formulaic to capture the variables and/or transforms available in a users' environment where appropriate.

Bugfixes and cleanups:

  • Migrated all code to use the Black style.
  • Increased unit testing coverage to 100%.
  • Fixed mis-alignment in the right- and left-hand sides of formulas if there were nulls at different indices.
  • Fixed basis spline transforms ignoring state, fixed generated splines for large numbers of knots, and fixed specification of knots via non-list datatypes.
  • Fixed category order being inconsistent if categories are explicitly ordered differently in the underlying data.
  • Lots of other minor nits and cleanups.


  • The structure of the docsite has been improved (but is still incomplete).
  • The .parser and .utils modules of Formulaic are now inline documented and annotated.

0.2.4 (9 July 2021)

This is a minor release that fixes an issue whereby the ModelSpec instances attached to ModelMatrix objects would keep reference to the original data, greatly inflating the size of the ModelSpec.

0.2.3 (4 February 2021)

This release is identical to v0.2.2, except that the source distribution now includes the docs, license, and tox configuration.

0.2.2 (4 February 2021)

This is a minor release with one bugfix.

  • Fix pandas model matrix outputs when constants are generated as part of model matrix construction and the incoming dataframe has a custom rather than range index.

0.2.1 (22 January 2021)

This is a minor patch release that brings in some valuable improvements.

  • Keep track of the pandas dataframe index if outputting a pandas DataFrame.
  • Fix using functions in formulae that are nested within a module or class.
  • Avoid crashing when an attempt is made to generate an empty model matrix.
  • Enriched with long description for a better experience on PyPI.

0.2.0 (21 January 2021)

This is major release that brings in a large number of improvements, with a huge number of commits. Some API breakage from the experimental 0.1.x series is likely in various edge-cases.

Highlights include:

  • Enriched formula parser to support quoting, and evaluation of formulas involving fields with invalid Python names.
  • Added commonly used stateful transformations (identity, center, scale, bs)
  • Improved the helpfulness of error messages reported by the formula parser.
  • Added support for basic calculus on formulas (useful when taking the gradient of linear models).
  • Made it easier to extend Formulaic with additional materializers.
  • Many internal improvements to code quality and reliability, including 100% test coverage.
  • Added benchmarks for Formulaic against R and patsy.
  • Added documentation.
  • Miscellaneous other bugfixes and cleanups.

0.1.2 (6 November 2019)

Performance improvements around the encoding of categorical features.

Matthew Wardrop (1):
    Improve the performance of encoding operations.

0.1.1 (31 October 2019)

No code changes here, just a verification that GitHub CI integration was working.

Matthew Wardrop (1):
    Update Github workflow triggers.

0.1.0 (31 October 2019)

This release added support for keeping track of encoding choices during model matrix generation, so that they can be reused on similarly structured data. It also added comprehensive unit testing and CI integration using GitHub actions.

Matthew Wardrop (5):
    Add support for stateful transforms (including encoding).
    Fix tokenizing of nested Python function calls.
    Add support for nested transforms that return multiple columns, as well as passing through of materializer config through to transforms.
    Add comprehensive unit testing along with several small miscellaneous bug fixes and improvements.
    Add GitHub actions configuration.

0.0.1 (1 September 2019)

Initial open sourcing of formulaic.

Matthew Wardrop (1):
    Initial (mostly) working implementation of Wilkinson formulas.